Sustainable Development Goal 6 calls upon the world to ensure universal access to water and sanitation by 2030. Despite progress made under the MDGs, some 43 million people still have no access to an improved drinking water source, and a further approximately more than 56% the population lacks hygienic toilet and resulting into use of water source that has contaminated by faeces. The water and sanitation sector in Tanzania has undergone extensive reforms in the past decade. This led to the recent adoption of a Sector-Wide Approach (SWAp), which includes much greater coordination of finance for the sector as well as taking a sector wide view of performance monitoring and institutional development. Through the multi-donor Water Sector Development Program (WSDP), funding for the sector has quadrupled since 2002
Tanzania is not on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal target for either water supply or sanitation—the overall trend in access as reported by survey data barely keeps up with population growth in both cases, let alone extending access to the unserved. Although the most up-to-date survey data was collected before the recent rapid increase in funding for the sector, the funding has come too late to meet the targets. An analysis of the investment requirements and budget allocations suggests that even with the recent increase, funding is less than what is required to meet urban water supply targets and only sufficient in rural areas if low cost technology options are deployed. In sanitation, the mechanisms for leveraging the majority of finance which is expected to come from households are yet to be defined, making it difficult to estimate the investment gap. The shift to a SWAp has not been a smooth transition, and a number of still-unresolved issues threaten to undermine donor confidence before the new approach has been given time to deliver. Institutional reform and increased finance do not guarantee services unless the entire ‘service-delivery pathway’, along which finance is converted into services, is functioning effectively. Upstream progress in policy and institutional reforms as well as finance is positive, but is currently undermined by downstream management and implementation challenges. Key concerns include:
GBFS WASH initiatives in both a rural and an urban context provides access to improved drinking water services and/or improved sanitary facilities to Tanzanian communities 2016 to 2018. Our work strives to improve environmental health by reducing pathways for disease transmission, enhancing nutrition especially with regards to stunting in children, and reducing both untreated human waste and wastewater.
Long-term sustainability lies at the core of our work. We strengthen public governance around water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services, support institutional changes and capacity, develop financially viable services, and improve asset management of existing WASH infrastructure. This includes working together with civil society and the private sector in advocacy and operation, as well as promoting sector and stakeholder dialogue and reflection about changing needs and standards in the light of increasing urbanization and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
GBFS provides expertise to work towards bringing capacity to universal coverage through three distinct product areas:
- Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All (SSH4A)
- Urban Sanitation & Hygiene for Health and Development (USHHD)
- Functionality of Rural Water Supply Services (FRWSS)
Although access to water and sanitation is a basic human right, a large part of the world’s population still lives without clean water or a safe, sanitary toilet. In many urban areas, water and sanitation service delivery is fragmented and fails to deliver minimal service standards, while those without access lack the means and influence to change their situation as they are often the poorest and the most marginalized groups of society. GBFS in collaboration with other stakeholders works to tackle these challenges through comprehensive approaches that focus on equitable and sustainable access to urban water, sanitation and hygiene.
1. Sanitation & Hygiene
Investment in urban sanitation generally concentrates either on household toilet promotion following rural models or sewerage construction, but the latter is often not economically viable or is out of reach for most cities and towns. GBFS – Urban Sanitation & Hygiene for Health and Development (USHHD) product integrates work on city sanitation planning, compliance strategies, behavioral change communication with a pro-poor market-based approach that includes business models for toilet upgrading, emptying, treatment and where possible, re-use. Health and safety of services for both consumers and workers is essential, and goes beyond the simplistic distinction between manual and mechanical emptying.
2. Water Supply
From the provision of adequate water supply services to developing and introducing affordable tariff structures and systems to operate and maintain the services, improved local capacity is desperately needed to ensure equitable access to safe, sustainable water for all. In Urban Water Supply Services (UWSS), GBFS therefore works with local authorities and service providers to improve utility management in small towns and peri-urban areas. From building capacity in tariff setting and collection, to developing public-private partnerships, advocating pro-poor water policies, improving effluent and waste water management and addressing non-revenue water.
We run urban WASH programs across Northern Regions of Tanzania in collaboration with other WASH stakeholders under financing of Regional Water. Our approaches are scalable and adaptable in order to address the diverse and context specific needs of urban communities.